Terra-cotta Warriors and Horses – Episode 6

 兵马俑  复活的军团 6-1Empire’s End 与子同仇
Notes (from Juanpingz):
Han Fei韩非 (also Han Feizi韩非子) (ca. 280–233 BC) was a philosopher who, along with Li Si, developed Xun Zi’s philosophy into the doctrine embodied by the School of Law or Legalism. Unlike the other famed philosophers of the time, Han Fei was a member of the ruling aristocracy, having been born into the ruling family of the state of Han during the end phase of the Warring States Period. In this context, his works have been interpreted by some scholars as being directed to his cousin, the King of Han. After many years in the Qin court, Han Fei was persecuted by his colleague Li Si李斯, who was afraid Qin’s king would replaced his position with Han Fei withforced to drink poison in prison.
Lao Ai嫪毐(?-238 BC):the lover of Qin ShiHuang’s mother, had 2 sons with her and conferred ChangXiHou.
With Qin ShiHuang’s mother’s support, he rebelled and was defeated. He and 2 sons were killed. Qin ShiHuang’s mother was drove out of XianYang.But aroused the ministers’ opposition, they thought it wasn’t consistent with the tradition of filial piety Ethics. After killed 27 ministers, Qin ShiHuang made a concession and let his mother back to XianYang to be in prison in the palace.

Notes (from Juanpingz):
Li Si (Chinese: 李斯; pinyin: Lǐ Sī; Wade-Giles: Li Ssu) (ca. 280 BC – September or October 208 BC) was the influential Prime Minister (or Chancellor) of the feudal state and later of the dynasty of Qin, between 246 BC and 208 BC. A famous Legalist, he was also a notable calligrapher. Li Si served under two rulers: Qin Shi Huang, king of Qin and later First Emperor of China — and his son, Qin Er Shi. A powerful minister, he was central to the state’s policies, including those on military conquest, draconian centralization of state control, standardization of weights, measures and the written script, and persecution of Confucianism.
A staunch believer in a highly bureacratic system, Li Si is considered to have been central to the efficiency of the state of Qin and the success of its military conquest. He was also instrumental in systemizing standard measures and currency in post-unified China. He further helped systemize the written Chinese language by promulgating as the imperial standard the small seal script which had been in use in the state of Qin all along. In this process, variant graphs within the Qin script were proscribed, as were variant scripts from the different regions which had been conquered. Contrary to popular belief, though, Li Si did not "invent" small seal script.
When Qin Shi Huang died while away from the capital, Li Si and the chief eunuch Zhao Gao suppressed the late emperor’s choice of successor, caused the crown prince to commit suicide, and installed another prince, Qin Er Shi(Qin Emperor II) (229B.C-207B.C) in his place. During the tumultuous aftermath, Zhao Gao convinced the new emperor to install his followers in official positions. When his power base was secure enough, Zhao Gao then had Li Si killed in 208 BC in a grisly manner — being cut in half in public.
Zhao Gao (traditional Chinese: 趙高; ?? — 207 BC) was the chief eunuch during the Qin Dynasty of China, who played an instrumental role in the downfall of the Qin Dynasty. Note that while he is referred to as a eunuch, he was not castrated – he was born with a sexual disability.
In 207 BC, rebellions rose one after another across China. Zhao was afraid that the Second Emperor might make him responsible for the uprisings. To preempt this, Zhao forced the emperor to commit suicide and replaced him by Fusu’s son, Ziying. (Note: Some scholars pointed out that Fusu’s son might be too young to plot the demise of Zhao Gao and Ziying might be a brother of the First Emperor instead.)
After 5 day, Ziying tried his best to do the final thing that he could do for his country: killed ZhaoGao.
Xiang Yu (traditional Chinese: 項羽; simplified Chinese: 项羽; pinyin: Xiàng Yǔ; Wade-Giles: Hsiang Yü; 232 BC – 202 BC) was a prominent general during the fall of the Qin Dynasty. His name was Ji (籍), Yu was his courtesy name. He was a descendant of Chu nobility. A great general, it took him only several years to put a giant empire effectively at his whim. In the battle of JULU, he with 40 or 50 thousand defeated 400 thousand of Qin’s army.
After Qin was eliminated, there was the war between Xiang Yu and Liu Bang since 206-202 BC. Xian Yu won every battle except for the final on.
Xiang trapped at the Battle of Gaixia. Liu ordered his army to sing songs from Xiang’s native country of Chu to give Xiang’s soldiers an impression that their hometown had been captured, which demoralized Xiang’s army. Before the breakout, willing not to become his burden, YuJi虞姬, XiangYu’s wife, committed suicide.
At last, only Xiang broke out, but stopped by the River Wu. Then one of his supporters with a boat appeared and told him their hometown wasn’t captured by Liu, asked him onto the boat back to Chu.
Xiang Yu said:"Then i with 8000 of Chu’s sons and brothers left our hometown, now only I am alive. I am too ashame to meet my relatives and friends." So he asken the man take his horse away,then committed suicide with his sword.
Emperor Gao (256 BC or 247 BC–June 1, 195 BC), commonly known inside China by his Temple Name, Gaozu (Chinese: 高祖; pinyin: Gāozǔ, Wade-Giles: Kao Tsu), personal name Liu Bang刘邦 (Wade-Giles: Liu Pang), was the first emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling over China from 202 BC until 195 BC, and one of only a few dynasty founders who emerged from the peasant class (the other major example being Zhu Yuanzhang founder of the Míng Dynasty). Before becoming an emperor, he was also called Duke of Pei (沛公) after his birthplace. He was also created as the Prince of Hàn by Xiang Yu, the Grand Prince of Western Chu following the collapse of Qín Dynasty, and was called so before becoming emperor.


About kchew

an occasional culturalist
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