Yue’s King Gou越王勾践（c520-465B.C.）：Yue越 and Wu吴 were the countries in the Spring and Autumn Period春秋.In 496 B.C., Wu吴’s king HuLu阖闾 was defeated by Yu越, died after injured. His son, Wu吴’s king HuChai夫差 determined to take the revenge. In 495 B.C., he attacked Yue越. In 496 B.C., in order to retain his power, Yue越’s King GouJian勾践 conceded defeat and begged to be the slave of HuChai夫差. After 3 years, he returned Yue越, slept on brushwoods and tasted a gall everyday to remind himself not forgetting the humiliation. In 473 B.C, he eventually eliminated Wu吴. HuChai夫差 committed suicide.
Sword "Yue’s King Gou JIan"越王勾践剑：The words on the sword showed its master was Yue越’s King Gou JIan勾践. When unearthed in 1962, it has no rusts. With a light cut, Its thin blade easily shattered 20 pieces of paper. Its blade can be compatible with the modern product with precision grinder.
The sword’s heart was made of bronze alloys with lower tin and better toughness for not broken. Its blade is bronze alloys with higher tin for lethality, Its patterns is ternary alloys with lead for fine.
Jing Ke (Chinese: 荊軻; pinyin: Jīng Kē; Wade-Giles: Ching K’o) was a guest residing in the estates of Dan, crown prince of Yan and renowned for his failed assassination of the Chinese emperor Qin Shi Huang who reigned from 221 BC to 210 BC. His story is told in the chapter entitled Biography of the Assassins (刺客列傳) in Sima Qian’s Records of the Grand Historian, or Shiji.
Jing Ke and was introduced by Tian Guang to Dan the crown prince of Yan. Jing Ke was originally from Wei (衛, not 魏), which he left because he was not being recognized by the King of Wei. After travelling around, he arrived at Yan and made friends with Gao Jianli and a butcher of dogs. Together they passed the days drinking and having fun.
Dan was a friend of Zheng (who later became Qin Shi Huang) when they were both hostages in the State of Zhao. When Dan escaped from Zhao back to Yan, Qin’s army moved towards the border with Yan. Yan’s army was too weak to fight off the army of Qin. Instead of going to battle, Dan consulted with Tian Guang on a course of action, and decided to assassinate the king of Qin. Tian Guang, who was a friend of Jing Ke, recommended him to Dan to carry out the assassination.
A Qin army general (Fan Yu Qi), who had lost favor with the king of Qin, was a guest at Dan’s residence at that time. Having learned of his whereabouts, Jing Ke persuaded the general to commit suicide, as the king of Qin wanted his head. Together with the head and a map of Yan, Jing Ke had enough reasons to approach the king of Qin.
Off onto his mission, at the river of Yi (the border of Zhao), Jing Ke reportedly shouted out this impromptu poem after a cup of wine with friends: "Piercing wind, freezing river of Yi. The hero fords, and he never returns!" (風瀟瀟兮，易水寒，壮士一去不復返!) This heroism, which reflects the general ideology of the society at that time, is recorded in Shiji.
Armed with a poisoned dagger hidden inside the rolled-up map scroll, Jing Ke and Qin Wu Yang represented Yan and met with the King of Qin in his palace at the capital of Qin. Qin Wu Yang was carrying the map case while Jing Ke was holding the head of general Fan. Upon entering the throne room, Qin Wu Yang became nervous and his face turned white, this almost gave away the plot as it aroused the suspicions of the king and the ministers present. But Jing Ke calmed them by calling Qin Wu Yang a rustic unused to the splendors of the palace. Jing Ke then took the map case from Qin Wu Yang and laid it on the table before the king. He unrolled the map scroll, he seized the dagger and plunged it towards the King of Qin while grasping his sleeve.
Jing Ke missed and in the struggle, the sleeve was torn off and the King of Qin escaped. As Jing Ke chased the King around the audience hall, the King of Qin tried to pull out his sword which was slung at his side; however this was a ceremonial weapon which had been made especially long to impress onlookers and the King was unable to unsheathe it. After being advised by a court official, who mimed the slinging of the sword across the back and the drawing of it across the shoulder, the King of Qin finally managed to draw his sword and stabbed Jing Ke with it eight times. Jing Ke, knowing that his chance was slipping away, threw the dagger at the King but missed. Finally guards, which out of the King’s paranoia over having armed men in his presence had been posted at a great distance and barred from entering the hall without orders, arrived and killed the assassin.
Dun镦：the flatbed metal set at the end of a spear’s stalk.
Shu殳：a kind of weapons placed on chariots.
The Lü shih ch’un ch’iu is unique among early works in that it is well organized and comprehensive, containing extensive passages on such subjects as music and agriculture, which are unknown elsewhere. It is also one of the longest of the early texts, extending to something over 100,000 characters. To the usual description of its language as ‘homogeneous’ there must be added the qualifications that there is considerable borrowing from other texts with differing grammatical characteristics, and the fact that in different parts of the book there are different patterns of word usage.
When Zhuangxiang died in 247 BCE, Lü Buwei was made regent for the 13-year-old Zheng. In order to establish Qin as the intellectual center of China, Lü "recruited scholars, treating them generously so that his retainers came to number three thousand" (tr. Knoblock and Riegel 2000:13). In 239 BCE, he ordered that his retainers write down all that they had learned and assemble their theses into a work consisting of eight "Examinations," six "Discourses," and twelve "Almanacs," totaling more than 200,000 words.
Lü exhibited the completed encyclopedic text at the market gate in Xianyang, the capital of Qin, with a thousand measures of gold hung above it, supposedly offered to any traveling scholar who could "add or subtract even a single character."
The Yiwenzhi (藝文志 "Bibliographical Treatise") of the Hanshu history lists the Lüshi Chunqiu as belonging to the Zajia (雜家/杂家 "Mixed School"), within the Hundred Schools of Thought framework. Although this text is frequently characterized as "syncretic," "eclectic", or "miscellaneous", it was a cohesive summary of contemporary philosophical thought, including Legalism, Confucianism, Mohism, and Daoism.