Terracotta Army Documentary Episode 1

 
 Resurection of the Terracotta Army
兵马俑复活的军团 Emperor’s Army 王者之师 (Wang zhe zhi Shi)
 
Excecellent Chinese Historical documentary in youtube format. Thanks to effort of Juanpingz, who not only provided youtube vides of the documentary series, but also provided accompanying background historical notes.
 
 
I, Emperor’s Army
一,王者之师
More than 2000 years ago, Qin秦’s army unified China in 10 years. The army haven’t been known much for many years. Why was the Qin秦’s army so strong? How could they attain so great achievements?
(1-1)Notes:
Xia 夏: c21th-c.16th century B.C, the 1st dynasty in China.
Shang商: c16th-11th,century B.C., the 2nd dynasty in China.
The Zhou Dynasty (Chinese: 周朝; pinyin: Zhōu Cháo; Wade-Giles: Chou Ch`ao; 1122 BC to 256 BC[1]) preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. The Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other in Chinese history–though the actual political and military control of China by the dynasty only lasted during the Western Zhou. During the Zhou, the use of iron was introduced to China, while this period of Chinese history produced what many consider the zenith of Chinese bronze-ware making. The dynasty also spans the period in which the written script evolved from the ancient stage as seen in early Western Zhou bronze inscriptions, to the beginnings of the modern stage, in the form of the archaic clerical script of the late Warring States period.
During the Zhou Dynasty, the origins of matured Chinese philosophy developed, its initial stages beginning in the 6th century BC. The greatest Chinese philosophers, those who made the greatest impact on later generations of Chinese, were Kong Fuzi (Latin: Confucius), founder of Confucianism, and Laozi, founder of Daoism. Other philosophers, theorists, and schools of thought in this era were Mozi (Latin: Micius), founder of Mohism, Mengzi (Latin: Mencius), a famous Confucian who expanded upon Kong Fuzi’s legacy, Shang Yang and Han Feizi, responsible for the development of ancient Chinese Legalism (the core philosophy of the Qin Dynasty), and Xunzi, who was arguably the center of ancient Chinese intellectual life during his time. Even more so then intellectual iconic figures such as Mencius.In an age of intellectual sophistication, Chinese philosophy of this period has been often compared to its contemporary in ancient Greece.
Qin or Ch’in(秦), (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. It eventually grew to dominate the country and unite it for the first time, after which it is referred to as the Qin Dynasty. The surname of its rulers was Ying (嬴).
 
  
 
 
1-2
(1-2)Notes:
1,Seven Powerful States of Warring States战国七雄: Then there were seven powerful countries, namely Qi齐, Chu楚, Yan燕, Han韩, Zhao赵, Wei魏, Qin秦, called 战国七雄。 At last, Qin秦 unified all the countries.
2,Sima Qian (ca. 145–90 BC) was a Prefect of the Grand Scribes (太史令) of the Han Dynasty. He is regarded as the father of Chinese historiography because of his highly praised work, Records of the Grand Historian (史記), an overview of the history of China covering more than two thousand years from the Yellow Emperor to Emperor Han Wudi (漢武帝). His definitive work laid the foundation for later Chinese historiography.
In 99 BC, Sima Qian got involved in the Li Ling Affair: Li Ling (李陵) and Li Guangli (李廣利), two military officers who lead a campaign against the Xiongnu (匈奴) in the north, were defeated and taken captive. Emperor Han Wudi attributed the defeat to Li Ling, and all the officials in the government condemned Li Ling for the defeat. Sima was the only person to defend Li Ling, who had never been his friend but who he respected. Emperor Han Wudi interpreted Sima’s defence of Li Ling as an attack on his brother-in-law, who had also fought against the Xiongnu without much success, and sentenced Sima to death. At that time, execution could be commuted either by money or castration. Since Sima did not have enough money to atone his "crime", he chose the latter and was then thrown into prison, where he endured three years. He described his pain thus: "When you see the jailer you abjectly touch the ground with your forehead. At the mere sight of his underlings you are seized with terror… Such ignominy can never be wiped away."
In 96 BC, on his release from prison, Sima chose to live on as a palace eunuch so to complete his histories, rather than commit suicide as was expected of a gentleman-scholar.
In writing Records of the Grand Historian, Sima initiated a new writing style by presenting history in a series of biographies. His work extends over 130 chapters — not in historical sequence, but was divided into particular subjects, including annals, chronicles, treatises — on music, ceremonies, calendars, religion, economics, and extended biographies.
3,The Records of the Grand Historian (traditional Chinese: 史記; simplified Chinese: 史记; pinyin: Shǐjì; Wade-Giles: Shih-chi) written from 109 BC to 91 BC, was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the Yellow Emperor until his own time. (The Yellow Emperor, traditionally dated ca. 2600 BC, is the first ruler whom Sima Qian considers sufficiently established as historical to appear in the Records.) As the first systematic Chinese historical text, the Records profoundly influenced Chinese historiography and prose. In its impact, the work is comparable to Herodotus and his Histories.
Unlike subsequent official historical texts that adopted Confucian doctrine, proclaimed the divine rights of the emperors, and degraded any failed claimant to the throne, Sima Qian’s more liberal and objective prose has been renowned and followed by poets and novelists. Most volumes of Liezhuan are vivid descriptions of events and persons. This has been attributed to the fact that the author critically used stories passed on from antiquity as part of his sources, balancing reliability and accuracy of the records. For instance, the material on Jing Ke’s attempt at assassinating first emperor of China was an eye-witness story passed on by the great-grandfather of his father’s friend, who served as a low-ranked bureaucrat at court of Qin and happened to be attending the diplomatic ceremony for Jing Ke. It has been observed that the diplomatic Sima Qian has a way of accentuating the positive in his treatment of rulers in the Basic Annals, but slipping negative information into other chapters, and so his work must be read as a whole to obtain full information.
 
  
 
1-3
(1-3)Notes:
1,Campaign of HuaiHai淮海战役:Chinese civil war in 1948.
2,The Zhan Guo Ce (traditional Chinese: 戰國策; simplified Chinese: 战国策; pinyin: Zhàn Guó Cè; Wade-Giles: Chan-kuo Ts’e; literally "Strategies of the Warring States") was a renowned ancient Chinese historical work and compilation of sporadic materials on the Warring States Period compiled between 3rd century to 1st century BCE.[1][2] It is an important literature in the research of Warring States Period as it accounts the strategies and political views of the School of Negotiation and reveals the historical and social characteristics of the period.
  
 
1-4
(1-4)Notes:
Lü Buwei (simplified Chinese: 吕不韦; traditional Chinese: 呂不韋; pinyin: Lǚ Bùwéi; Wade-Giles: Lü Pu-wei, 291?–235 BCE) was a Warring States Period merchant who schemed his way into governing the State of Qin. He served as Chancellor of China for King Zhuangxiang of Qin, and as regent and Chancellor for the king’s (or, some claim, Lü’s) young son Zheng, who became Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. Lü Buwei committed suicide after being implicated in plotting with the Queen Dowager and her "eunuch" lover. Lü notably sponsored an encyclopedic compendium of Hundred Schools of Thought philosophies, the 239 BCE Lüshi Chunqiu ("Mr. Lü’s Annals").
The Zhanguoce has a story about Lü deciding to change careers from commerce to government.
On returning home, he said to his father, "What is the profit on investment that one can expect from plowing fields?"
"Ten times the investment," replied his father.
"And the return on investment in pearls and jades is how much?"
"A hundredfold."
"And the return on investment from establishing a ruler and securing the state would be how much?"
"It would be incalculable." "Now if I devoted my energies to laboring in the fields, I would hardly get enough to clothe and feed myself; yet if I secure a state and establish its lord, the benefits can be passed on to future generations. I propose to go serve Prince Yiren of Qin who is hostage in Zhao and resides in the city of Jiao."
Using Machiavellian bribes and machinations, Lü arranged for Yiren to return home and be adopted as the son and heir of Lady Huayang. She changed his name to Prince Chu (子楚) because she was from the southern state of Chu.
Then Prince Chunamely became Qin ZhuangXiangWang秦庄襄王 His son was Qin ShiHuang秦始皇.
Then, Lü Buwei吕不韦 had the big Power in his hand for a long time, at last was forced to commit suicide. by Qin ShiHuang秦始皇.
It was said in fact, Qin ShiHuang秦始皇 was Lü Buwei吕不韦’son, for when he got to know Zi Chu子楚, he present Zi Chu子楚 one of his women. In a short time, the woman had a boy, namely Qin ShiHuang秦始皇.
Another argument says it is a rumor spread by Lü Buwei吕不韦 for stopping Qin ShiHuang秦始皇 to kill him.
  
 
1-5
I, Emperor’s Army
一,王者之师
More than 2000 years ago, Qin秦’s army unified China in 10 years. The army haven’t been known much for many years. Why was the Qin秦’s army so strong? How could they attain so great achievements?
 
  
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About kchew

an occasional culturalist
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